Creation ex Nihilo and
the Big Bang
by Wes Morriston
Abstract: William Lane Craig claims that the doctrine of creation ex
nihilo is strongly supported by the Big Bang theory of the origin of the
universe. In the present paper, I critically examine Craig’s arguments for
this claim. I conclude that they are unsuccessful, and that the Big Bang
theory provides no support for the doctrine of creation ex
nihilo. Even if it is granted that the universe had a “first cause,”
there is no reason to think that this cause created the universe out of
nothing. As far as the Big Bang theory is concerned, the cause of the universe
might have been what Adolf Grünbaum has called a “transformative
cause”—a cause that shaped something that was “already there.”
God began to create the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless void and
darkness covered the face of the deep, while a mighty wind swept over the face
of the waters.
are got into fairy land, long ere we have reached the last steps of our theory;
and there we have no reason to trust our common methods of argument, or to think
that our usual analogies and probabilities have any authority. Our line is too
short to fathom such immense abysses.
Adolf Grünbaum has pointed out, many familiar causes are “transformative”
in character. When a person makes something, he makes it out of something.1 He transforms a
pre-existent material into something else (the effect). The carpenter cuts the
wood and fits it together so as to make a house, the potter shapes and bakes his
clay so as to make a pot, and so on.
1 can be read as saying that God did something of this sort with the “formless
void”—shaping it in a step-by-step process that led to sky and earth and
sea. But according to the traditional Christian interpretation, this is not the
whole story. If there was a First Stuff (a “formless void,” perhaps) out of
which God made the universe, then he must have made that too. And inasmuch as it
is the First Stuff, he did not make it out of any other stuff. He created it ex
traditional Christian doctrine of creation has often been stated in Aristotelian
terms: God is the efficient
cause of the universe. No doubt God had something definite in mind when he
created (the formal
cause), and no doubt he had his reasons for creating (the final cause)—but
there was no material cause—no “stuff” that God worked with in the very
first act of creation.
we don’t need Aristotle’s Four Causes to explain what is meant by creation ex
nihilo. For present purposes I shall adopt
the following definition:
is created ex nihilo by y
if and only if i) y
to exist, and ii) y
does not cause x
to exist by transforming some other material stuff.2
convenience and stylistic variation, I shall continue to use the Aristotelian
expression, “material cause,” to refer to whatever underlying material stuff
is altered by a “transformative cause.”
suppose, for the sake of argument, that the universe was caused to exist by a
very powerful person. Why isn’t this person a “transformative cause?” Why
not suppose that there is a material cause? Why do Christians insist that God
must have created the universe ex nihilo?
there is little scriptural support for this traditional doctrine,3
there are obvious theological motives. Philosophically minded Christians have
long held God to be, not just the greatest being who happens to exist, but the
Greatest Conceivable Being. A God who could not create without shaping a
pre-existent material stuff would be limited
by the nature of that stuff—he could create only what his stock of materials
permits. Such a God would not be the Greatest Conceivable Being since one can
consistently conceive of a God whose power is not limited in this way.
recent years, however, some Christian philosophers have suggested that purely
scientific and philosophical considerations show that the universe was not made out
of anything. William Lane Craig, in
particular, has argued that creation ex
nihilo is strongly supported by the Big
Bang theory of the origin of the universe. Craig gives at least two different
arguments for this conclusion. The first depends on the supposed “infinite
density” of the initial singularity, the second on the claim that there was no
prior to the initial singularity.
on the other hand, has forcefully argued that creation ex
nihilo does not follow from any reasonable
interpretation of the claim that the universe has a cause. Causes of the sort
that are acknowledged in everyday experience and in scientific explanations
either do not involve conscious agency, or, if they do, they also involve the transformation
of some pre-existing material. In neither case do we have the sort of cause envisaged by classical
theism. So even if one were to grant the premise that everything (including the
beginning of the universe) has a cause, it would not follow that the universe
was created ex nihilo.4
the present paper, I shall show that neither of Craig’s “Big Bang”
arguments is successful in refuting Grünbaum’s contention, or in establishing
a link between the Big Bang theory and creation ex
nihilo. Even if it is granted that the
universe was created by a very powerful person, the Big Bang theory provides no
support for the further claim that this person created the universe out of
nothing. As far as the Big Bang theory is concerned, the creation of the
universe might have consisted in the transformation of something else. And even
if God is the cause of the Big Bang, his first creative act might have consisted
in the shaping of something that he did not create.
an article with the title, “Philosophical and Scientific Pointers to Creation
ex Nihilo,” Craig argues that the Big Bang theory entails creation ex
nihilo. The “staggering implication”
of what is known about the expansion of the universe, he says, is that “at
some point in the past, the entire known
universe was contracted down to a single point.
. . .”5 As we go back in time, we reach “a point
at which . . . the universe was ‘shrunk down to nothing at all.’” And
this, Craig insists, shows that the universe was created out of nothing.
event that marked the beginning of the universe becomes all the more amazing
when one reflects on the fact that a state of “infinite density” is
synonymous with “nothing.” There can be no object that possesses infinite
density, for if it had any size at all, it would not be infinitely dense. . . . Thus, what the Big Bang model requires
is that the universe had a beginning and was created out of nothing.6
argument can be conveniently outlined as follows:
According to the Big Bang theory, the universe “began with a great explosion
from a state of infinite density.”7
“There can be no object” having “infinite density.”
So, “‘infinite density’ is synonymous with ‘nothing.’”
Therefore, the Big Bang theory “requires” that “the universe had a
beginning and was created out of nothing.”
argument of Craig’s need not detain us for long. There are at least three
quite obvious—and decisive—objections to it.
In the first place, “infinite density” is not
synonymous with “nothing,” and the “initial singularity” that figures in
Craig’s statement of the Big Bang theory8 is not
simply nothing at all. A mere nothing
could not begin expanding, as the infinitely dense “point universe”9
is supposed to have done. And even if it lacks spatial and temporal spread, the
initial singularity would have other properties—for example, that of “being
a point.” It would therefore be a quite remarkable something,
and not a mere nothing. So, step 3 is obviously false.
In the second place, (3) does not follow from (2). No one would suppose that it
follows from the fact that there can be no round squares, that “round
square” is synonymous with “nothing.” But neither should anyone suppose it
follows from the fact (assuming it is a fact) that there can be no infinitely
dense objects, that “infinite density” is synonymous with
Something interesting does follow from (2), however. If no object can have
infinite density, then the universe was never in a state of infinite density,
and the interpretation of the Big Bang that figures in step 1 of the argument is
false. It seems, then, that Craig must either scrap this way of describing what
the Big Bang theory says, or else relax his strictures against infinite density.
Either way, this particular argument for creation ex
nihilo is unsound.
few Big Bang theorists would say that there ever was a “point universe” or a
“state of infinite density.”10 It is true that
on the standard Big Bang model, the “geometry” of the continuing expansion
is such that, as we trace its history backwards in time, the diameter of the
universe continually decreases—gradually approaching a limit of zero. But having
a diameter of zero can be thought of as an
ideal limit, rather than as the state of anything that once actually existed.
we approach this limit, however, we have no theory that enables us to draw
reliable inferences about the behavior of the universe. It is well known that
general relativity breaks down prior to 10-43 seconds (or “Planck time,” as
it is called), and that quantum effects then become significant. What is needed
is a theory that somehow “incorporates the principles of both general
relativity and quantum theory.”11 Until such a
theory emerges, all claims about the earliest stage in the history of the
universe remain in the category of sheer speculation.12
The Second Argument
“The Ultimate Question of Origins: God and the Beginning of the Universe,”
Craig explains the relation between creation ex
nihilo and the Big Bang theory in a rather different way.
The standard Big Bang model . . . describes a
universe which is not eternal in the past, but which came into being a finite
time ago. Moreover—and this deserves underscoring—the origin it posits is an
absolute origin ex
nihilo. For not only all matter and energy, but space and
time themselves come into being at the initial cosmic singularity. . . . On such
a model the universe originates ex
nihilo in the
sense that at the initial singularity it is true that There is no earlier
space-time point or it is false that Something
existed prior to the singularity.13
this passage, Craig does not equate the “initial cosmic singularity” with
“nothing.” What he says instead is that nothing preceded the initial
singularity in time,
and this is supposed to show that it came into existence ex
nihilo. If it was created—and Craig, of
course, believes he can show that it was created by a timeless person—then it
must have been created out of nothing. In that case, it has an efficient, but not a material, cause. The Creator did not make the initial
singularity by transforming a pre-existent material stuff. He couldn’t have,
since there was no time prior to creation.
argument can be conveniently summarized as follows:
The initial singularity exists at the earliest point of space-time.
There is no time prior to the earliest point in space-time.
Therefore, there was nothing temporally prior to the initial singularity.
So, the initial singularity must have come into existence out of nothing.
If, therefore, the initial singularity was created, it must have been created
out of nothing.
are at least two problems with this argument. The first is that the Big Bang
theory does not entail the truth of premise 6. Even it is granted that the
space-time of our universe begins at (or shortly “after”) the initial
singularity, it does not follow that time
see this, suppose that God created the initial singularity, but that he did a
lot of other things first. Maybe he created other universes (with their own
“space-times”)—or perhaps he just thought things over for a while prior to
creating the universe. As Craig himself has suggested in one of his responses to
Grünbaum, God might have “counted up” to creation.
. . . [S]uppose that God led
up to creation by counting, “1, 2, 3, . . ., fiat lux!” In that case the
series of mental events alone is sufficient to establish a temporal succession
prior to the commencement of physical time at t = 0. There would be a sort of
metaphysical time based on the succession of contents of consciousness in God's
mind prior to the inception of physical time. Thus, it is meaningful to speak
both of the cause of the Big Bang and of the beginning of the universe.14
view of the way Craig characterizes the Big Bang theory, perhaps the “count”
in his thought experiment should go like this: “1, 2, 3, . . ., Let there be
an infinitely dense particle!”15 Space-time
begins when (or shortly after) God says, “Let there be an infinitely dense
particle!” In this imaginary scenario, the creation of space-time takes place
within a more fundamental kind of time—a kind of time that is perfectly
conceivable independently of the existence of our universe. Craig refers to it
as “metaphysical time.”
is the nature of metaphysical time? According to Craig, it is tensed, dynamic,
and non-relative. There is an ever changing fact of the matter about which
events are future, which present, and which past. Future events become present,
present events become past, and past events sink further and further into the
have just seen that a temporal series of purely mental events, coming into
existence and passing away in metaphysical time prior to the beginning of the
universe, is possible. But there also does not seem to be any a priori bar to
the possibility of a temporal series of non-mental
events occurring prior to the beginning of our space-time. If he had wished to
do so, God could have created a whole series of universes, each with its own
history and its own special laws, prior to creating ours.
of course, thinks that any such temporal series must have a beginning. He offers
a pair of well-known (and controversial) a priori arguments against the
possibility of a beginningless series of events, and he also argues that the
ultimate cause of the very first event in metaphysical time must be a timeless
person. I will not reproduce or challenge any of these arguments here.16
I shall assume, for the sake of argument, that metaphysical time has a
beginning. What is important in the context of this paper is that such a
beginning need not coincide with the beginning of space-time.
as Craig explicitly acknowledges, God could
have created metaphysical time long before
creating the space-time of our universe, it follows that there could have been
something temporally prior to the earliest point in space-time (t = 0), and
premise 6 of Craig’s argument for creation ex
nihilo would then be false. Premise 6 may
be true anyway—metaphysical time and space-time could
have begun together. But since the Big Bang theory says nothing about metaphysical
time, Craig cannot consistently appeal to that theory to show that this is so.
this were the only thing wrong with Craig’s argument, it might seem easy
enough for him to produce an argument for the same conclusion without relying on
the disputed premise 6. If, as Craig holds, metaphysical time must have a
beginning, then whenever that beginning occurs—whether before or at
t=0—there is no time prior to it. And in either case, I believe Craig would
say that something
comes into existence out of nothing.
is only fair to point out, however, that the
Big Bang theory would contribute nothing
to such an argument. More importantly, perhaps, the revised argument would not
establish that the universe (or any part thereof) was created ex
nihilo, but only that something
or other was. Even if Craig’s a priori
arguments against the possibility of an infinite past were successful, they
would not enable him to show that the heavens and the earth were created out of
this point aside, let us ask how Craig’s argument fares if it is assumed that
the first moment of metaphysical time coincides with t=0 in space-time. It seems
to me that this still doesn’t give us “origination ex
nihilo.” What follows from step 7 of the
argument is only that the universe didn’t emerge from something that
existed at a time earlier than t=0—not
that it wasn’t made out of anything at all. To get from (7) to (8), we need an
71/2. If there was nothing
temporally prior to the initial singularity, then it must have come into
existence out of nothing.
it is not at all clear that (71/2) is true. Even if we accept Craig’s
contention that the universe was caused by a timeless and personal God, why
should we join him in supposing that God is the only
being who exists outside time? Why could there not also have been a timeless
“stuff” out of which God “formed” the universe? If God had created the
singularity out of something timeless, then it would not have come out of
nothing even though there was nothing temporally
prior to it, and (71/2) would be false. It seems, then, that the beginning of
the universe could have had a material cause even if there is no time prior to
the beginning of the universe
believe the reason Craig doesn’t take this possibility into account is that he
equates the possibility of a material cause of the universe with the possibility
that matter/energy plays a certain role in creation. Assuming that matter/energy
is itself created, it can hardly be among the causes of creation. And since
matter/energy has temporal duration, it also follows that the material cause (if
any) of the universe cannot be timeless.
this is how Craig thinks about the possibility of a material cause of the
universe can be seen in his recent discussion of “vacuum fluctuation” models
of the origin of the universe.
Still, insofar as vacuum
fluctuation models render it plausible that the universe lacks a material cause,
they are of service to theism. . . . There is no reason that the theist could
not explain creation ex nihilo by saying that the sum total of the matter/energy
in the universe is zero and thus God in creating the universe required no
here assumes that matter/energy is the only possible “material substratum”
for creation. If, prior to the Big Bang, the sum total of matter/energy were
zero (as Craig apparently believes is postulated by a vacuum fluctuation model
of creation18), Craig thinks this would support his
claim that the universe was created out of nothing. And since, as he has also
argued, matter/energy is never “quiescent,”19
it also follows that there could not be a timeless material cause.
why suppose that matter/energy is the only possible “stuff” out of which God
might have made the universe? It’s true that we don’t seem to be acquainted
with any timeless “stuffs” that could have played this role. But we don’t
encounter any timeless persons either, and Craig has no trouble with that idea.
Indeed, he thinks that the need for an efficient
cause of the beginning of the whole temporal order forces him to postulate one.
So why should there not also have been a timeless material “stuff” for God
to work with?
has claimed that it is obvious—so obvious that no honest and rational person
could fail to agree—that nothing can
begin to exist without a cause.20
But as far as I can see, the need for a material
cause is exactly on a par with the need
for an efficient
cause. To see this, consider the following “stories” that might be offered
to explain the coming into existence of a house.
1. There was no lumber, no nails, no bricks, no mortar, no building materials of
any kind. But there was a builder. One day, the builder said, “Five, four,
three, two, one, Let there be a house!” And there was a house.
2. There was no builder, but there were lumber, nails, bricks, mortar, and other
necessary building materials. One day, these materials spontaneously organized
themselves into the shape of a house.
do not see that Story 1 is in any way superior to Story 2. Both stories are
incompatible with our experience of the way the world works. Both are deeply
counter-intuitive. The fact is that a house needs both an efficient and
a material cause.
the universe is not a house. But as far as I can see, the universe is at least
as much (or as little) in need of a material
as of an efficient
cause. Let us suppose, then, that Craig is right in thinking that the causes (if
any) of the universe would have to be timeless. And let us suppose further that
he is right in thinking that—although we have never encountered a timeless
person—we must postulate one as the efficient
cause of the universe. Why, then, would it not be equally appropriate to
postulate a timeless material cause?
I do not have a
candidate for the timeless material cause of the universe. The only “stuffs”
with which we are familiar are this-worldly materials, all of which exist in
time. But it is equally true that the only persons with which we are familiar
are this-worldly persons, and all of them exist in time. My question, then,
seems perfectly reasonable. If we follow Craig in postulating a timeless person
as the efficient cause of the whole natural order, why should we not also
postulate a timeless “stuff” as the material cause of the universe?
might occur to someone to object that the material cause of the universe
couldn’t be timeless because it is a part or an aspect of the universe, and
because every such part or aspect is temporal. The material cause of the
universe (if there were one) wouldn’t just disappear after creation. It would
remain within the physical universe—as the stuff of which it continues to be
“made.” If there were a material cause of the universe, it would necessarily
have temporal duration.
Perhaps. But even if
this is so, it is not an adequate defense of Craig’s position. For it fails to
demonstrate a clear difference with respect to temporality between a timeless
efficient cause and a timeless material cause. Craig, it will be recalled, holds
that the efficient cause of the universe is timeless only sans the universe.
When God created the universe, Craig thinks that he also placed himself within
time. Assuming that this makes sense, we may ask why God could not also have
placed a timeless material cause within time (and the universe). The “stuff”
of which the universe is made would then be timeless sans the universe. But when
he created a universe with a beginning in time, we may suppose that God put this
same “stuff” into time. At the point of creation, so to speak, both the
material and the efficient cause of the universe enter time.
hasten to assure the reader that my purpose here is not to recommend such a
doctrine of creation. I claim only that, given what is known about the Big Bang,
creation out of
an unknown timeless stuff is not less
likely than creation by
an equally unknown timeless person.
I say that creation out of some timeless stuff is not less likely than creation ex
nihilo, I do not mean to suggest that
either possibility is especially likely. My own humble and admittedly non-expert
view is that since almost everything connected with the Big Bang theory is
highly speculative, it would be a grave mistake to draw from it any firm
conclusions about the cause(s) of the Big Bang. Deriving any conclusion from the
Big Bang theory about the truth or falsity of classical theism is premature at
this is not all. Those who support Craig’s argument believe that the universe
requires an efficient cause, but that it is not, and does not need to be, made out
of anything. I believe my argument shows
that this position is not sustainable. Either our commonsense intuitions about
ordinary intra-mundane cases of causation can reasonably be applied to the
beginning of the universe, or they cannot be. If they can be, then creation out
of some uncreated “stuff” may actually
be quite a lot more likely than creation ex
nihilo! In our experience of the world,
after all, the making of enduring things always involves the transformation of
some pre-existent material.21 So, if commonsense
intuitions are to be relied upon here, creation ex
nihilo is out. If, on the other hand, our commonsense intuitions about
causation cannot reasonably be applied to the beginning of the universe,22
then our epistemic situation does not allow us to draw any conclusion whatever
about the existence or nature of a first cause. Either way, Craig’s Big Bang
argument for creation ex nihilo
wise philosopher once said,
Though the chain of
arguments . . . were ever so logical, there must arise a strong suspicion, if
not an absolute assurance, that it has carried us quite beyond the reach of our
faculties, when it leads to conclusions so extraordinary, and so remote from
common life and experience. We are got into fairy land, long ere we have reached
the last steps of our theory; and there we have no reason to trust our common
methods of argument, or to think that our usual analogies and probabilities have
any authority. Our line is too short to fathom such abysses.23
target in this remarkable passage was Malebranche’s claim that God is “the
sole and immediate cause of every event which appears in nature.” But I think
these eloquent words are well adapted to the present context as well. They
provide a quite accurate description our epistemic situation with respect to
creation ex nihilo
and the Big Bang theory. Here too, I think some philosophers have gotten
themselves pretty far into “fairy land.” Here too, “our common methods of
argument” fail to settle all the hard questions we are capable of
the last analysis, we simply do not have enough to go on to say what the causes
(efficient or material) of the beginning of the universe are likely to be.
Certainly, the Big Bang theory does not settle the issue in favor of creation ex
nihilo. Even if time and the universe
began together, they may, for all we can tell, have been created by
an unknown efficient cause out of
an equally unknown material “stuff.” The best course may well be to suspend
judgment about all of these bizarre possibilities.24
of Colorado, Boulder
Adolf Grünbaum, “The Pseudo-Problem of Creation in Physical Cosmology,” Philosophy
of Science vol.
56, no. 3 (1989): 373–394. See also Grünbaum, “Creation as a
Pseudo-Explanation in Current Physical Cosmology,” Erkenntnis 35: 233–254.
When I use the expression “material cause” below, I am referring to an
underlying “stuff” that is affected by a “transformative cause” in Grünbaum’s
sense of that expression.
The claim that God created out of nothing is not well supported by Genesis 1.
Readings of verse 1 range from “In the beginning God created the heavens and
the earth . . .” to “When God began to create the heavens and the earth . .
.” Neither reading entails creation ex nihilo. Both are consistent with the
view that God made the heavens and the earth out of something that was already
there when God “began to create,” and the second reading is at least
consistent with the view that the “formless void” was the stuff out of which
God made the earth. The only unambiguous biblical assertion that God created out
of nothing occurs in 2 Maccabees 7:18. (Maccabees is accepted as scripture by
Roman Catholics, but not by Protestants.)
In “The Pseudo-Problem of Creation in Physical Cosmology.”
William Lane Craig, “Philosophical and Scientific Pointers to Creation ex
Nihilo,” in Contemporary
Perspectives on Religious Epistemology, ed. R. Douglas Geivett and Brendan Sweetman (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 191.
“Philosophical and Scientific Pointers,” 192. Craig repeats this argument
almost verbatim in Theism, Atheism, and Big Bang Cosmology (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1993), 43–44.
“Philosophical and Scientific Pointers,” 192.
Craig refers to it as the “Standard Big Bang Model.” See “The Ultimate
Question of Origins: God and the Beginning of the Universe,” Astrophysics
and Space Science
269–270 (1999): 723–740.
This phrase is used by “four prominent astronomers” whom Craig approvingly
quotes in “Philosophical and Scientific Pointers” and in Theism, Atheism,
and Big Bang Cosmology (43). Writing in Scientific American (March 1976), J.
Richard Gott III, James E. Gunn, David N. Schramm, and Beatrice M. Tinsley say
this: “The universe began from a state of infinite density about one Hubble
time ago. . . . The point universe was not an object isolated in space; it was
the entire universe . . .” (65, my italics).
Even those who believe there was an initial singularity do not hold that it
possessed infinite density. They suppose instead that the singularity had no
density, since it had zero volume. For a helpful explanation, see Milton K.
Munitz, Cosmic Understanding (Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 1990),
R.M. Wald, Space,
Time, and Gravity: The Theory of the Big Bang and Black Holes
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977), 53.
Ohio State astronomer Barbara Ryden puts the the point quite bluntly:
“Frankly, we are clueless about how matter behaves at higher temperatures and
densities. Our experience is all with densities which are much lower by
comparison. A naïve extrapolation tells us that when the universe was 0 seconds
old, it had infinite density and temperature, but again, our knowledge of what
happens in the extremely early universe is pure speculation.” See: http://www-astronomy.mps.ohio-state.edu/~ryden/ast162_9/notes37.html.
Craig, “The Ultimate Question of Origins.”
William Lane Craig, “The Origin and Creation of the Universe: A Response to
Adolf Grünbaum,” British
Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (1992): 233–240.
Craig sees this as a “knockdown argument” for the conclusion that “time as
it plays a role in physics is at best a measure of time rather than constitutive
or definitive of time.” See William Lane Craig, “Design and the Cosmological
Argument,” in Mere
Creation: Science, Faith and Intelligent Design, ed. William A. Dembski (Downers Grove, Ill.:
InterVarsity Press, 1998), 350–1.
Though I have done so elsewhere. See “Must the Past Have a Beginning?” Philo
vol. 2, no. 1(1999): 5–19. See also “Craig on the Actual Infinite,” Religious
William Lane Craig, “Design and the Cosmological Argument,” in Dembski, Mere
I cannot vouch for the accuracy of Craig’s understanding of the vacuum
William Lane Craig, “The Kalam
Cosmological Argument and the Hypothesis of a Quiescent Universe,” Faith
and Philosophy 8,
no. 1 (1991): 104–108.
I have argued elsewhere that, when applied to a “beginning” prior to which
there is no time, this principle is not obviously true. See “Must the
Beginning of the Universe Have a Personal Cause? A Critical Examination of the
Kalam Cosmological Argument,” Faith and Philosophy 17, no. 2 (2000):
Any exception to this rule would surely be regarded as a miracle. If there were
strong empirical evidence of miracles of this sort, that would boost the prior
probability of creation ex
nihilo. But even if they were well evidenced, the standard
Christian miracles are not of this sort. Jesus turns water
to wine. He makes the
still.” He raises Lazarus from the dead. And so on.
22. This is my own position, which I
have developed in “Must the Beginning of the Universe Have a Personal
Cause?” Craig’s reply to this paper, “Must The Beginning Of The Universe
Have A Personal Cause?: A Rejoinder,” as well as my response to Craig,
“Causes and Beginnings in the Kalam
Argument: Reply to Craig,” are also forthcoming in Faith
David Hume, Enquiry
Concerning the Human Understanding, section vii, part i.
I would like to thank the editor of Philo for his insightful comments and judicious advice. I
would also like to thank Eric Vogelstein for straightening me out on several